Book: Philosophy of Crisis
There are two current approaches towards human history: that of considering human beings as a mere effect and that of considering them as cause. In other words, we are either a product of History or History is a product of mankind; humans are either determined by the events or determine them; humans are either driven by History or drives History. Both conceptions, however, are non-realistic, since unilateral.
Considering human beings as an emergent cause, sociohistorical factors – which are predisponent causes – act, allowing – or not – emergent actualizations. But the being, as emergent, also acts over predisponence. The Chinese conception of Yang and Yin clearly comprehends the determination-determinability and the determinability-determination interactions.
Whatever acts, determining, in its turn is determined by what is suffering determination. Active and passive are reverse vectors, between emergence and predisponence. Mankind does not escape from this law.
Before History, man acts and suffers, determines and is determined, in a dialectic that constitutes his historical “concretion”, which, once separated, can lead to abstractist views. Those who consider human determination whilst virtualizing historical circumstances, tend to affirm that History is a product of man; those who do the other extreme, tend to the opposite.
We can start from such certainty: if man can be driven by History, he can also drive it. And, to paraphrase a positive thought from the Kantian ethics, we could say: if man may, he must.
It is a matter of man’s dignity to drive, as much as possible, History. But it is important to know, with maximum caution, when he is really driving or is merely being driven by it. A leader, when thinking he is driving the herd, could be only being driven by it, even if he stands in front of the herd’s march, which follows him only because he follows the path they are going. History is full of such tremendous miscomprehension. Small men seemed conductors of people, when, actually, real conductors are few, rare.
Is it even possible to find a parallel between a Hitler, byproduct of an impetus of the herd, and a Moses, creator of a people, of a nation, of a new way of life?
The great conductors only emerge in propitious moments in History and, unfortunately, our time is not a great one. However, it is not so far the day of the emergence of one who shall draw a new direction to mankind. Such direction is never original, since there is nothing new under the sun. But, actually, old forgotten ways, which may even seem impracticable, shall emerge not farther from our days, and shall lead us towards a better situation.
The crisis we live in, overwhelming all sectors, is reaching its limits and, when the corruption (or, process of decay) of a being reaches its limits, the being ceases to be and another one emerges.
The current moment of overwhelming crisis takes us with strides towards the limit. But when there is corruption of one thing, there is, simultaneously, a generation of another, and when society is corrupted, it brings within it what will be the new order. To search the positive aspects that indicate the new form is a mission for those which eyes can reach beyond the immediacy of the present moment.
And those are, always and unfortunately, few.
When everyone has turned their eyes merely to the passing instant, they cannot tolerate those who deviate the attention towards future possibilities. Man of times of decadence, such as ours, lives only in the present. There are times of man living in the past, but those who live in the future are always, in History, the less numerous and the most misunderstood.
If humankind has, sometimes, tolerated the prophets, it has never hid the unpleasantness of their presence. We have enough historical subsidies to demonstrate the veracity of such statement. However, that has not prevented things from taking such foreseen destiny, and, if they were determined by the decisions of the present moment, they could have taken a different route if those, who alert mankind consciousness, had been better understood.
We must comprehend the prophets. That does not mean we should listen to the words of anyone who points out future times. If prophetism is a theme of immense relevance to mankind, it demands deeper philosophical studies that not everyone is able to perform. It is comfortable the position of in limine denial of prophetism, but it reveals ignorance regarding one of the most serious and difficult themes of philosophy. It is necessary a re-study on prophetism, so to search the deepest reasons and the solidest nexuses connecting the prophets to the events of history. Instead of simplistic and coward solutions, such as despising them, we should detain ourselves in the study of this theme, which has interested great and conspicuous thinkers, but, unfortunately today, when people are merely living the pressing moment, it seems such an outlying issue that has totally lost significance.
How can one drive History? If we look to the example of science, we see that knowledge, allied to technology and structured over a new schematic, allow the prevention of evils that may arise, anticipating fatal consequences. Such statement dispenses demonstration, since the examples are of general knowledge.
If we expand our studies, led by a spirit not only academic, but genuinely alive, and scrutinize all sectors of human knowledge, which compose the object of all sciences, and mesh them all in a conception that includes and not excludes, that unites and not separates, that becomes concrete and not abstract, we can, thence, build a new science that would, for instance, be the true science of History, a true Historiology, i.e., a theoretical and practical science, reuniting knowledge to praxis, to brave new horizons, open new possibilities, to hinder destructive processes and facilitate constructive ones.
Knowledge is the instrument of triumph over our needs and our deficiencies. And once we start executing such honorable work, architectonically the apex of human knowledge, for the sake of mankind, only then, a ground for the manifestation of a more robust belief ought to be ready, which should have the role of concretionize human conceptions, not only of the cosmos, but of all orders of being.
What we can do is to prepare the ground.
Whether we want it or not, we cannot only be the prophets of catastrophe. What is perishing must perish. We ought to be the prophets of human resurrection, which shall come.
If our chests still cannot pulsate before a new transcendentality (which would, in fact, be the same, emerging from the content of all great religions, since the symbols can vary, once plurissignificant, but the content, the symbolized, the referred eternal never changes), shall come a day in which we must find the point of ubiquity for all of our highest hopes.
And the eternal perfection, measure of perfection of all things, must, one day, be once again found, so science, philosophy and religion should be structured in a great schematic, since the limit of one indicates the limits of the others.
Therefore, there are ways to overcome the crisis and all unitive practices – that performs a qualitative leap by the construction of new tensional structures, always based on cooperation – are seeds thrown in the path of life that should, sooner or later, flourish and fructify.
Gradually, a tensional view should allow us to reach such concretion that unite the scattered and lead us to superation. In this moment, human hearts shall rise and new prayers shall fill the space, since hope would be revived once again within mankind.
Such hope should mark the bottom line to a walk towards an improved society, more united, but also more sublimate and more perfect, because, once knowing what leads us to diacrisis and sincrisis, which not properly solve crisis, it would allow us to no longer lose the perennial source of our hopes, and no longer abandon our route, which shall endure for future generations, in a higher and higher ideal of super-humanity, not as a gracious lie, but a real and profound truth: path to the supreme perfection, beginning and end of all things.
Despite the disbelief of our time that seems to befog it, such day shall shine. Evil is not eternal, since it lacks effectiveness. Such was the great certainty that inspired human hearts in all eras, and such is the certainty that shall be affirmed within ourselves.